Issue 12 2021

4 Business schools need to improve classroom diversity, finds new report from the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC). The Global Diversity of Talent – Attainment and Representation Report reveals that only 45.5 percent of graduate management education (GME) degrees are held by women in the UK. Although this figure is higher than the 38.4 percent seen in the rest of Europe, more needs be done to promote inclusion. The report identifies current levels of representation and will help graduate business schools gauge where their organisation’s efforts stand in the accessibility of their programmes. It drew on data from across the US Census Bureau International Database, The World Bank, UNESCO, UNECE, and OECD. Using a consistent methodology from international sources, a data set was created to illustrate the diversity of the candidate pipeline for graduate management education (GME). This data set offers a point of reference for GME attainment 3d Printing Is Key To Improving Spare Parts Supply Chains, When Combining Human And Data-Driven Skills 3D printing, could be the key to reducing inventory, and for making supply chains for spare parts more responsive, according to new research from Durham University Business School. The study, conducted by Dr Atanu Chaudhuri alongside colleagues at Aalborg University in Denmark, investigates how the technology can be used to assist in the production of spare parts for manufacturers across multiple sectors, and the positive impact the technology could have on industry. Predicting the need for, and supplying, spare parts can be challenging for manufacturers, Dr Chaudhuri says, as customers rarely want the same types and levels of items year on year – or even month on month. To combat this uncertainty and to avoid being caught short, many companies adopt highly unsustainable and expensive contingency plans. Dr Chaudhuri says, “To ensure they can provide a good service and avoid lengthy periods of “downtime” for customers, companies tend to keep high umbers of spare parts in different locations around the w rld in order to meet service level requirements. But this is costly and unsustainable. “3D printing is romising as a technology for spare parts production s it can handle the chall nges of high variability, long lead times, low demand, and high stock-out costs associated with traditional manufacturing of spare parts.” Dr Chaudhuri ‘s research reveals that 3D printing holds the potential to reduce customer wait times for replacement parts, shorten the supply c ain – which is better for both swift service and for reducing a company’s carbon footprint, – and can even help companies to keep costs low whilst maint ining a igh standard of quality. But switching from traditional t s f manufacturing to 3D printing is not as straightforward as it sounds. Dr Chaudhuri notes there are a umber of significant challenges which have, in previous attempts, made it near impossible to imple e t the technology effectively. This includes limitations on the availability of appropriate materials , the overwhelming range of different parts needing to be designed for 3D re- production, possible quality risks, and legal consequences if manufacturers violate intellectual property rights by recreating parts designed by someone else. However, Dr Chaudhuri’s study suggests an approach which will enable manufacturers to more easily adopt 3D printing technologies for their spare parts production. By applying a design thinking approach, the research sets out a process for manufacturers to identify the most suitable spare parts, which would be suitable for the 3D printing process, from a wider portfolio of spare parts. The study provides further support for manufacturers by developing a set of generic guidelines for manufacturers to adopt in order to identify suitable spare parts for 3D printing in the future. Steps include companies holding workshops that involve the maintenance and service technicians in order to help identify the potential for 3D printing in current and future products, and identifying which spare parts create problems for maintenance and service due to lack of availability, complexity or have issues with durability. Deploying technology can only solve half of the problem